Personal Taxation

Income tax and capital gains tax rates

  2013/14 2012/13
Basic rate band (BRB) £32,010 £34,370
Higher rate band 32,011-150,000 34,371-150,000
Additional rate over 150,000 over 150,000

Allocation of rate bands

Taxable income uses up the rate bands in the following order:

G'general income' (employment, pensions, business profits, rent)

S'savings income' (mainly interest)

D'dividends' (mainly distributions from companies)

  2013/14 2012/13
Rates differ for: G S D G S D
Basic 20% 20% 10% 20% 20% 10%
Higher 40% 40% 32.5% 40% 40% 32.5%
Additional 45% 45% 37.5% 50% 50% 42.5%

If taxable general income is less than £2,790 (2012/13: £2,710), savings income is taxed at a 'starting rate' of 10% until total taxable income exceeds that limit. This 'starting rate band' is part of the BRB.

Extension of basic and higher rate bands

A taxpayer who pays personal pension policy premiums, or gives cash to charity under the Gift Aid scheme, increases the basic and higher rate bands by the grossed up equivalent of the payment. This means that more tax is paid at the basic rate and less is paid at the higher rates. There are restrictions on maximum tax reliefs for pension contributions (see Investment Reliefs).

Filing of return and payment

2013/14 personal tax return: due to be filed by 31 January 2015 (online) or 31 October 2014 (paper).

2013/14 tax payable:

Missing any payment dates leads to interest; missing the balancing payment date by 30 days will lead to a 5% penalty. Further 5% penalties apply when the balancing payment is 6 months late and 12 months late.

Main personal allowances

  2013/14 2012/13
Personal income tax allowance (PA)** £9,440 £8,105
CGT annual exemption 10,900 10,600
Blind person's allowance 2,160 2,100

Age allowances

Personal allowance (PA)

  2013/14 2012/13
Born 6.4.38-5.4.48 £10,500 £10,500
Born before 6.4.38 10,660 10,660
Minimum** 9,440 8,105

Married couple's allowance (MCA)* (also for civil partners)

  2013/14 2012/13
Born before 6.4.1935 £7,915 £7,705
Minimum** 3,040 2,960

Income Limit**

  2013/14 2012/13
Income Limit** £26,100 £25,400

** Allowances are reduced if 'adjusted net income' (ANI) exceeds £100,000. ANI is total taxable income less qualifying pension contributions and Gift Aid donations. PA is reduced by £1 for every£2 of ANI over £100,000, so is nil when ANI is £118,880 or more.

Age allowances are reduced by £1 for every £2 by which ANI exceeds the income limit. PA is reduced first until it reaches the minimum; then MCA is reduced until it reaches the minimum.

* Amount depends on age of older spouse; allowed at 10%; reduced if marriage or civil partnership took place during the tax year.

Main personal reliefs

Rent-a-room exemption for letting out part of the taxpayer's only or main residence: gross income of £4,250pa.

Gift aid: on a cash gift to charity, the charity can reclaim 20/80 (25%) of the donation from HMRC if the donor makes a declaration. The donor increases the basic rate band by the gross gift (i.e. donation x 100/80). The market value of gifts of land or quoted shares can be deducted from taxable income for full tax relief, and the charity pays no tax on the gift received. Also the "Give As You Earn" scheme allows charitable gifts to be made from pre-tax pay, which reduces tax paid under PAYE.